This highly toxic chemical is bioconserved and biomagnified in shellfish and fish in Minamata Bay and the Shiranui Sea, which, when it occurs in the local population, leads to the formation of sorrel. While cats, dogs, pigs, and human deaths continued for 36 years, Chisso and the Kumamoto prefectural government did little to prevent the epidemic. The effects on the animals were quite strong in what they named as having.
As of March 2001, 2,265 victims were officially identified as having Minamata disease (1,784 of whom died), and more than 10,000 of bactrim pills received financial compensation from Chisso. By 2004, Chisso had paid $86 million in compensation and was ordered to clean up the pollution that same year. On March 29, 2010, an agreement was reached on compensation for the still unreleased victims.
The second outbreak of Minamata disease occurred in Niigata Prefecture in 1965. Primal Minamata disease and Niigata Minamata disease are considered two of Japan's Four Great Pollution Diseases. In 1908, the Chisso Corporation first opened a chemical factory in Minamata, Kumamoto Prefecture, located on the west coast of the southern island of Kyushu. Initially producing ferments, the factory followed the nationwide expansion of the chemical industry in Japan, branching out into the production of acetylene, acetaldehyde, acetic acid, vinyl chloride and octanol, among others.
The Minamata factory became the most advanced in all of Japan, both before and after the World War. The waste resulting from the manufacture of these chemicals was released into Minamata Bay through the factory water. These pollutants have an impact on the environment. Fisheries were damaged in terms of reduced catches, and in response, Chisso reached two separate compensation agreements with the "hery" cooperative in 1906 and 1943.
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The rapid expansion of the Chisso factory boosted the local economy, and as the company prospered, so did Minamata. This fact, combined with the lack of other industry, meant that Kisso had a great deal of influence in the city. At one point, over half of Minamata's city government's tax revenue came from Chisso and his employees, and the company and its subsidiaries were responsible for creating a quarter of all jobs in Minamata. The city was even dubbed the "castle city" of Kisso, in reference to the dal l capital cities that ruled Japan during the Edo period.
The Chisso plant first began producing acetaldehyde in 1932, producing 210 tons that year. By 1951, production had risen to 6,000 tons per year and peaked at 45,245 tons in 1960. Throughout the production, the factory ranged froma quarter to a third of all acetaldehyde production in Japan.
The chemical reaction used to produce acetaldehyde used mercury sulfate as a catalyst. Beginning in August 1951, the cocatalyst was changed from iron dioxide to iron sulfide. A side reaction of this catalytic cycle resulted in the production of a small amount (about 5% effluent) of an organic compound of mercury, the so-called methylmercury. This highly toxic compound was released into Minamata Bay from the cocatalyst change in 1951 until 1968, when this production method was cancelled.
Fizikanov was headed by her symptoms: difficult walking, difficult speech and convulsions.
Two days later, her younger sister also began to show the same symptoms and was also hospitalized. The girls' mother told the doctors that her daughter was experiencing similar problems. After a home study, eight more patients were found and hospitalized. On May 1, the director of bactrim pills informed the local health department of the discovery of an "epidemic disease of the central nervous system," marking the official discovery of Minamata disease.
To investigate the epidemic, the city government and various medical institutions formed at the end of May 1956.
Due to the localized nature of the disease, it was suspected to be contagious, and as a precaution, patients were isolated and their homes disinfected. Although the infection was later debunked, this initial response contributed to the stigma and discrimination faced by Minamata victims from the local community. In the course of its investigations, the Committee has uncovered anecdotal evidence of bactrim pills behavior of Cocktails and other children in areas adjacent to patients' homes.
Since around 1950, kats have been observed to have convulsions, walk around with maids, and die.
The locals called it their erratic movement. Crows fell from the sky, seagrass no longer grew on the seafloor, and fish floated dead on the surface of the sea. As the extent of the gap was understood, the committee invited researchers from Kumamoto (or Kumadai) University to help with the research work.
The Kumamoto University Research Group was formed on August 24, 1956. Researchers from the Medical School began visiting Minamata regularly and taking patients to the university hospital for detailed examinations. A more complete picture of the symptoms exhibited by patients was uncolored. The disease developed without any prior warning, with patients experiencing loss of sensation and numbness in their arms and legs. They became unable to carry small objects or fa b onns.
They could not run or walk without stumbling, their voices changed, and many patients had difficulty seeing, hearing, and swallowing. In general, these symptoms improved and were followed by severe convulsions, coma, and eventually death. By October 1956, about forty patients had been found, of whom 14 had died: a fatality rate of 35%.
On November 4, the research team announced their initial findings: "Minamata disease is more likely to be poisoned by heavy metal, presumably entering the human body mainly through fish and shellfish." As soon as the investigation revealed a heavy metal as a causal substance, water from the Chisso plant is immediately suspected as the origin.
The company's own testing showed that its wastewater contained many heavy metals at concentrations high enough to cause severe environmental degradation, including lead, mercury, anes, arsenic, th um and copper, plus the chalcogen selenium. Determining which poison is the cause of the disease proved to be extremely difficult and time-consuming. During 1957 and 1958, many different theories were proposed by various researchers.
At first, anese was thought to be a causal agent due to the high concentration found in fish and scammers. Thaum, selenium, and a multiple contaminant theory have also been proposed, but in March 1958, visiting British neurologist Doug Mcine suggested that Minamata's symptoms resemble those of organic mersuri po ing, so the focus of the investigation was on mersuri.
In February 1959, ainvestigation of mercury distribution in Minamata Bay. The results showed the participation buy bactrim online. Large amounts of mercury have been found in fish, shellfish and slush from the bay. The highest concentration, centered around the Chisso wastewater channel in Häkken Harbor, and reduced out to sea, clearly identifying the plant as the source of infection.
Pollution was so heavy at the mouth of the sewage canal that a figure of 2 kg of mercury per tonne of sludge was measured: a level that would be economically viable for extraction. Indeed, Chisso later created a subsidiary to recover and sell the mercury from the slush.
Hair was taken from victims of the disease as well as from the general population of Minamata. In patients, the maximum recorded mercury level was 705 parts per million (ppm), indicating very severe exposure, and in non-symptomatic residents of Minamata, the level was 191 ppm. This is compared to an average of 4 ppm for people living outside of the Minamata area.
The Chisso plant and its wastewater routes. During the Kumadai investigation, the causative agent was identified as a heavy metal, and the Chisso plant was widely assumed to be the source of contamination. Crisso came under more scrutiny, and in order to dispel criticism, the route of the sewage outlet was changed. Chisso was aware of the environmental damage caused by his empty water and was well aware that he was the prime suspect in the Minamata Disease investigation.
Despite this, since September 1958, instead of dumping her waste in Hyakken Harbor (the center of research and the source of the original contamination), she dumped waste water directly into the Minamata River. The immediate effect was the death of fish at the mouth of the river, and from that point on, new victims of Minamata disease began to appear in other fishing villages up and down the coast of the Shiranui Sea, as pollution spread to an even larger area.